A Review on the Health Risks of Women across Menopausal Status: What need to be done in India?

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (203-229), 2017

A Review on the Health Risks of Women across Menopausal Status: What need to be done in India?

Debasmita Kar and Subho Roy
Department of Anthropology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal

Abstract
United Census report (2010) reveals that worldwide, nearly 400 million women were at menopausal age (45-54 years) and nearly 500 million women will be entering in the menopausal transition over the next 5 to 10 years. In India, the mean age at menopause is quite early between 41.9 and 49.4 years. The purpose of this review is to understand the differences in fat distribution, blood sugar level, blood pressure, Hemoglobin, Triglyceride and cholesterol across women of differential menopausal status and also to understand the relation among these variables. Finally, we derived the gaps in research in the health risks of menopausal women in Indian context. A database search was conducted using Google search engine and visiting Pub med, and Medline websites using specific terms Menopause, CVD, BMD, Diabetes, Hemoglobin, Triglyceride, Lipid and Estrogen. Low estrogen level at menopause has been suggested to be associated with increased risk of CVD and low bone mineral density. Endogenous estrogen is seen as a cardioprotective hormone with a multimodal function having both immediate and longterm effects on the CVD system. Despite the notably increase in the incidence of CVD, during midlife, the underlying effect of menopause on cardio metabolic risk factors remains ill-defined in India. Now, if menopausal status alone can be a strong determinant of CVD related risk factors then the chance of Indian women to suffer from metabolic disorders will increase before they reach mid-life. In India, studies have mainly been carried out to determine the age at menopause and symptoms experienced by women during menopause. Only a few studies have been undertaken to understand the effects of menopausal transition in relation to aging process on general health profile of women in postmenopausal life. Thus, it becomes imperative to conduct more research on Indian population so that the health planners can take up effective strategies in promoting the midlife health.

Total Page Visits: 105 - Today Page Visits: 1