The Kela, A Nomadic Caste of Orissa: A Study of their conflict and Social Change by Uma Charan Mohanty. D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd., New Delhi. 2017 (Book Review)

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (321-322), 2017

The Kela, A Nomadic Caste of Orissa: A Study of their conflict and Social Change by Uma Charan Mohanty. D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd., New Delhi. 2017 (Book Review)

P. C. Joshi
Department of Anthropology University of Deli, Delhi

Maintaining (Or the Nature of) Relationship (or Friendship) with the Respondents during and after, the Cyber-ethnographic Study on Facebook

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (311-320), 2017

Maintaining (Or the Nature of) Relationship (or Friendship) with the Respondents during and after, the Cyber-ethnographic Study on Facebook

Devraj Singh Mayanglambam
Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi

Abstract
In this paper, I talk about how I maintained or the nature of, my relationships with my respondents during, and after, my PhD study on Facebook Interaction. How my respondents became my respondents, and later my beloved friends or Facebook friends, is also discussed. Also, what I felt, or feel, after one female respondent ended relationship, or what I felt after I found that she unfriended me, on Facebook, is also discussed. And some suggestions or life-lessons learnt are also mentioned, hoping they will, when read this paper, help future fellow researchers. Plus, how grateful I am to my beloved respondents for their generosity.

On the Concepts of Exclusion and Inclusion

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (297-310), 2017

On the Concepts of Exclusion and Inclusion

Vinay Kumar Srivastava
Anthropological Survey of India, Head Office, Kolkata, West Bengal

Abstract
The concepts of exclusion and inclusion became popular in the disciplines of social sciences in India in the last ten years or so, especially after the University Grants Commission took initiative in granting financial assistance to universities and deemed universities to start research centers for the study of these processes. In this span of ten years, the future of these research centers has dwindled, however the concepts have come to stay in our theoretical baggage. Most of the studies of exclusion and inclusion in India were done for understanding macro-structures, such as castes and tribes, the poverty of these communities and the systems of dominance that restrict their accessibility to resources and opportunities. The micro-structures at the level of the individual have not been explored. Many contexts, where exclusion is exercised, do not constitute a ‘community,’ as do castes and tribes, for instance, the visually challenged people or those with behavioural disorders. At best, they may be called ‘categories’. Thus, we need to examine the concepts of exclusion and inclusion at the individual level as well

Significance of Bailwng in the Traditional Belief and Customs of the Bodos in Assam

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (277-295), 2017

Significance of Bailwng in the Traditional Belief and Customs of the Bodos in Assam

Somenath Bhattacharjee and Franky Boro
1 Department of Anthropology, Assam University, Diphu Campus,Diphu, Karbi Anglong, Assam
2 Departments of Anthropology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Assam

Abstract
Bodo is a major indigenous group of North East India. They have a rich multi faceted and distinct culture of their own. Their agricultural practices, food habits and traditional belief systems have made them distinct and unique amongst the various tribes of the said region. Their traditions, myths and numerous folklores are intimately associated with different ritualistic practices and performances which are transmitted orally throughout the generations. It has framed the belief system and customary practices in the livelihood of the concerned people. Their traditional knowledge, ceremonies and customs are practiced with religious beliefs which also involve the worship of souls, spirits and other supernatural agencies. The Bailwng or village priest has an immensely important role in the traditional belief system of the Bodos. They perform certain rituals, pray, worship and chants to appease the benevolent deities and for their blessings during the festival. Without these religious specialists the concerned people cannot conduct any rituals and religious ceremonies. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the significance of the Bailwng or village priest in practicing rites and rituals of Bodo people dwelling in Darrang district of Assam. The paper also attempts to study oral traditions, myth, legends and folktales prevailed among them and simultaneously to find out the probable ways of their documentation to revitalize the rich oral traditions of this indigenous group. The paper has been prepared through primary data collected from fieldwork by applying anthropological research methods.

Negotiating Identity and Social Existence; Narratives of HIV+ve Trans-Women in Nagaland

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (261-276), 2017

Negotiating Identity and Social Existence; Narratives of HIV+ve Trans-Women in Nagaland

Kitoholi V Zhimo
Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi

Abstract
In contemporary usage, ‘transgender’ is used as an umbrella term for individuals whose gender expression runs against societal binary construction of gender, including transsexuals, cross –dressers, drag-kings, drag-queens, gender queer individuals and those who do not identify themselves with either of the two sexes currently defined. In other words, transgender may also used as a broad term to refer to people who do not conform to the traditional gender norms and boundaries or whose ‘concept of self’ appear to conflict with the assigned gender at birth. Generally, those individuals who identify themselves as ‘transgenders’ defy rigid, binary gender construction, and tend to break away from the prevalent stereotypical gender roles or conventional concept of masculinity and feminity.

Understanding the Population Structure of Bengali Speaking Hindu Community of Behala, Kolkata based on their Surname Diversity Estimation

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (231-245), 2017

Understanding the Population Structure of Bengali Speaking Hindu Community of Behala, Kolkata based on their Surname Diversity Estimation

Moumita Das and Suvendu Maji
Department of Anthropology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal

Abstract
Background: Surnames are a unique bio-cultural trait, which provide a convenient means of investigating microevolution in human populations. In the Western and Southern European system of surname attribution through the paternal line, surnames simulate neutral alleles of a gene transmitted only through the Y chromosome (Cavalli-Sforza and Bodmer 1971). In the Indian context there has been a debate over the application of surnames for the study of inbreeding and genetic kinship. Surname structure among Indian populations varies widely. Surnames symbolize the cultural and biological dimensions of a population, and their role, function, and distribution differ widely among castes, tribes, and other ethnic groups.
Material and Methods: Demographic data of Hindu Bengali population were collected from seven paras in Behala circle for population genetic study among the urban population. For the surname analysis, the surname of the husband and the ‘maiden surname’ of the wife were collected through field survey in 2016. The surname data were collected from 153 families. Seven paras were studied for surname distribution. Homozygosity and Heterozygosity were estimated from the proportions of the surnames of both the sexes. Equivalent surname number (ESN), Entropy and redundancy were calculated as defined by the information theory. The Euclidean distance between cohorts was also estimated to understand the genetic distance between different localities.
Random Isonymy (I) was calculated from the frequency distribution of the abundance of each surname separately in males (pi) and females (qi) and each surname separately in each para.
Results and Analyses: In this study, the highest heterozygosity (0.5556) has found among husbands and the lowest has found heterozygosity (0.074792). Due to small number of sample size the overall distribution of the random isonomy and variance in husband’s and wife’s population shows inconsistency of the estimation pattern i.e. in case of Husband’s random isonymy estimation the value ranges from 0.0003 to 4.4 whereas wife’s population show the consistency of the data estimation ranges from 0.03 to 0.5. The nature of the small cross-sectional data in caste population like the present study may influence the data consistency but at the same time it creates awide scope of testing different hypotheses related to surname diversity.

A Review on the Health Risks of Women across Menopausal Status: What need to be done in India?

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (203-229), 2017

A Review on the Health Risks of Women across Menopausal Status: What need to be done in India?

Debasmita Kar and Subho Roy
Department of Anthropology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal

Abstract
United Census report (2010) reveals that worldwide, nearly 400 million women were at menopausal age (45-54 years) and nearly 500 million women will be entering in the menopausal transition over the next 5 to 10 years. In India, the mean age at menopause is quite early between 41.9 and 49.4 years. The purpose of this review is to understand the differences in fat distribution, blood sugar level, blood pressure, Hemoglobin, Triglyceride and cholesterol across women of differential menopausal status and also to understand the relation among these variables. Finally, we derived the gaps in research in the health risks of menopausal women in Indian context. A database search was conducted using Google search engine and visiting Pub med, and Medline websites using specific terms Menopause, CVD, BMD, Diabetes, Hemoglobin, Triglyceride, Lipid and Estrogen. Low estrogen level at menopause has been suggested to be associated with increased risk of CVD and low bone mineral density. Endogenous estrogen is seen as a cardioprotective hormone with a multimodal function having both immediate and longterm effects on the CVD system. Despite the notably increase in the incidence of CVD, during midlife, the underlying effect of menopause on cardio metabolic risk factors remains ill-defined in India. Now, if menopausal status alone can be a strong determinant of CVD related risk factors then the chance of Indian women to suffer from metabolic disorders will increase before they reach mid-life. In India, studies have mainly been carried out to determine the age at menopause and symptoms experienced by women during menopause. Only a few studies have been undertaken to understand the effects of menopausal transition in relation to aging process on general health profile of women in postmenopausal life. Thus, it becomes imperative to conduct more research on Indian population so that the health planners can take up effective strategies in promoting the midlife health.

An Anthropological Enquiry on Indian Comics and Culture

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (183-201), 2017

An Anthropological Enquiry on Indian Comics and Culture

G. Kanato Chophy
New India Foundation Fellow, Bangalore, Karnataka

Abstract
The article critically analyses the Indian comic ventures juxtaposed with other comic traditions exploring the themes of nationalism, religious identity, sexuality, satire and artistic curtailment influencing comic culture. I highlight the inconsistencies in comic culture in relation to the Indian social reality that it seeks to represent. Drawing from popular imageries and themes used in Indian comics, the argument proceeds significantly on how comic representations are influenced by conservative ideals and notions held by the majority rendering a distinct Indian comic culture.

An Ethnographic Account of Indigenous Bell Metal Art of Assam

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (161-182), 2017

An Ethnographic Account of Indigenous Bell Metal Art of Assam

Drabita Dutta
Department of Anthropology, University of Delhi, Delhi

Abstract
Crafts are the one of the earliest expressions of human creativity. They have been playing a vital role in the social-cultural and economic milieu of a society. Bell metal crafts are one among them. Work centres of bell metal crafts are found throughout the length and breadth of India. Assam is one of the States of India known for its traditional bell metal cottage craft industries. The present paper seeks to understand the socio- economic conditions of bell metals artisans particularly kahars of Sarthbari clusters of Assam and how this cultural heritage can be preserved. It also explores the ways to minimize the exploitation of kahar in the hand of mahajans.

Socio – Cultural Diversity, Economy and Sustainable Development in Hebbale Village of Kodagu District, Karnataka

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 66(1-2) : (143-159), 2017

Socio – Cultural Diversity, Economy and Sustainable Development in Hebbale Village of Kodagu District, Karnataka

R. Rajendra Prasad, D. Xaviour and Prabir Kumar Jana
Anthropological Survey of India, Southern Regional Center, Mysore, Karnataka

Abstract
The present paper is the outcome of the field work conducted under the 12th plan project “Bio-Cultural Diversity, Environment and Sustainable Development”. Hebbale village was studied earlier under the village survey monograph series in the 1961 Census. It was again taken up for re-study to understand the changes that have occurred over period of five decades on the aspects of economy, health and education along with efficacy of development schemes/programmes introduced in the village. Since Habbale is a multi-ethnic village, attempt has been made to understand the changing situations among different castes and its impact.