Have we entered Anthropocene? (Brief Communication)

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 65(1) : (155-158), 2016

Have we entered Anthropocene? (Brief Communication)

Sahana Mandal
Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand

Abstract
Over the last few decade, human activity worldwide have caused immense changes in the global environment, which in certain ways have lead to even environmental degradation. The earth’s time history has been classified into chuncks of time based on major events and global changes in the environment (lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere as well as biosphere). Human impact on nature lately has been immense. Does this welcome a new age, with global environmental changes? This paper aims to discuss whether the present time represents herald of a new age with marked impact of anthropogenic activity on the global environment.

A Crisis of Ethnic Identity among the Kol Adivasi of Uttar Pradesh: Socio-Cultural Issues

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 65(1) : (143-153), 2016

A Crisis of Ethnic Identity among the Kol Adivasi of Uttar Pradesh: Socio-Cultural Issues

Vandana Kumari
Anthropological Survey of India, North West Regional Centre, Dehradun, Uttarakhand

Abstract
In India hundreds of communities are indigenous in nature. Urbanization, Industrialization and development affect indigenous communities and forced them to migrate from their traditional habitat to other alien places. Poverty, unemployment, deprivation of basic needs, poor health, malnutrition and illiteracy leads tough and poor quality of life for them. The most affected people are least equipped to overcome the unfaced and unseen challenges. The condition worsens even more when the identification of the affected people is not done properly, particularly those who are indigenous but have become victim of our political system. Kol is an ‘Aadivasi’ community but the Uttar Pradesh governments have not considered it fit to give them the recognition of an ‘Aadivasi’ community under Scheduled Tribe category. In Uttar Pradesh the ‘Kol’ are listed among the scheduled caste while they are recognized as scheduled tribes in the neighboring states of Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, etc. The paper highlights socio-cultural and economic life of the ‘Kol’ community and ethnic identity crisis among the Kol of Uttar Pradesh through the parameters of the name and constitutional status. In addition, it also describes problems and challenges faced by the ‘Kol Adivasi’ community in Uttar Pradesh.

Nostalgias of Adda

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 65(1) : (135-142), 2016

Nostalgias of Adda

Poulomi Mitra
Anthropological Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal

Abstract
“Adda” is a free-flowing casual informal conversation among friends and acquaintances of same age-group or varied age group having some intellectual significance. The intellectual aspect of adda has transformed over-time. The metamorphosis of adda happened with changing generations and ideas and combines intellect with casual chatting. The simplicity and ease of expression in an ‘Adda’ becomes the medium of exchange for ideas, inspiration and last but not the least casual sharing. That, ‘Adda’ is still alive compared to the other similar forms of discussion like ‘tarka’ (debate) or ‘jalsha’ is because of the inherent open-endedness of ‘Adda’ with no linguistic barrier and the plethora of themes that are discussed. The ease with which it can evolve in any location whether rural or an urban setting helped it to survive through changing times and society.In the present write-up, one such culture of Kolkata has been discussed that has been growing with the city- ‘Adda’. The discussion begins with an introduction to ‘Adda’ and then moving further delves into the changing colours of ‘Adda’ over time. The write-up also delves into the fact that ‘Adda’ was never ruled by gender bias. ‘Adda’ involved anybody and everybody where conversation happened freely. Even the language unknowingly formed among a ‘Adda’ group had a unique genre with mix of English, Bangla and Hindi. Through the discussion I try to portray the evolution of ‘Adda’ over time.

Pattern of Co-morbidities in Severely Acute Malnourished Children (Below 5 years of age) – A Brief Review

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 65(1) : (127-134), 2016

Pattern of Co-morbidities in Severely Acute Malnourished Children (Below 5 years of age) – A Brief Review

Neeru, Sahani. R and Sinha A.K.
Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh

Abstract
Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) is defined as a weight-for-height measurement of 70% or less below the median or 3 SD or more below the mean National Centre for Health Statistics reference values, the presence of bilateral pitting oedema of nutritional origin, or a mid-upper-arm circumference of less than 11.5 cm in children aged 6-59 months. Severe malnutrition affects about a tenth of world children under 5 years of age, particularly living in the developing world like India. According to National Health Survey 3, conducted during 2005-2006 in India, below 6.4% of children under 5 years of age were suffering from SAM. On the basis of the available data, it is expected that there are 8.1 million children below 5 year of age are likely to be suffering from SAM. In India more than 5 million children die every year as a direct or indirect result of malnutrition. The high mortality rate in children, especially in developing country like India, with complicated SAM is because of comorbid conditions namely infections and micronutrient deficiencies and a vice versa. Malnutrition leads to the likely hood of chronic diseases and also reduces long term physical development, cognitive skills, and consequently has a negative effect on school enrollment, and productively later life. In the present paper an attempt is made to see the pattern of co-morbidities in SAM children.

Defending Human Right of Tribal Women through Development Programme Implementation: A Study of Odisha

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 65(1) : (107-125), 2016

Defending Human Right of Tribal Women through Development Programme Implementation: A Study of Odisha

Chinmayee Satpathy
Tagore National Scholar, Anthropological Survey of India, Kolkata, West Bengal

Abstract
Tribal womenfolk are the most vulnerable section of Indian society suffering from gross human rights violations in the development process. The study has been undertaken in Mayurbhanj a scheduled district of Odisha having more than 58 per cent of tribal population. The aim of study is to measure the extent of awareness and availability of civil, political, cultural, economic rights to tribal women and their extent of participation in village development committees and decision making processes and role of Government and NGOs in this regard. The study is exploratory and descriptive in nature and purposive sampling method has been adopted covering 200 sample tribal women from two non-PVTGs like Santal and Kolha and two PVTGs like Hill Kharia and Mankirdia for making comparative study. The techniques of research used are observation, interview and focused group discussions (FGD). Two types of interview schedules have been used to collect data from the sample tribal women and service providers like government officials and NGO personnel and community leaders.
The research findings show poor socio-economic profile of sample tribal women like illiteracy, underemployment, early marriage below 18 years and more numbers of children, poor living standard, poor housing, absence of electricity and safe drinking water, non-use of toilets and lack of transportation facilities. Awareness of tribal women on various programmes like housing, drinking water and sanitation, PDS and health programmes is low which lead to less availability of benefits of development programmes to them. Participation of tribal women in village development committees is less than 50 per cent and lack of systematic approach and follow up measures in development interventions by the government and N.G.O is noticed. Hence, there is a need of reorientation in human rights approach to development and grassroots intervention.

Bishnupur: A Town of Cultural Excellence

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 65(1) : (89-105), 2016

Bishnupur: A Town of Cultural Excellence

Worrel Kumar Bain
Anthropological Survey of India, Eastern Regional Center, Kolkata, West Bengal

Abstract
Bishnupur, sub-divisional town in the district of Bankura was once a buzzing capital of ancient Malla dynasty. Bishnupur flourished in cultural excellence under the reign of Bir Hambir, the 49th ruler of Malla dynasty, who built the famous terracotta temples during the 16th and 17th centuries. This pre-colonial historical town in Bankura district is full of sculptures and relics from the past. It is not only famous for its wonderful medieval terracotta temples and glorious past but also for other cultural tradition such as terracotta art, Baluchari Sari, a distinct musical gharana, the distinctive art of making Dashabatar and Naqsh tash, articles of conch cells, Coconut shell carving, bell metal craft, Lantern etc. The paper attempts to trace the origin and development of the town as a heritage center through historical and cultural perspectives.

The Story of the Dove: A Mirror Reflecting the Relation between Garo Material Culture and Worldview

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 65(1) : (63-88), 2016

The Story of the Dove: A Mirror Reflecting the Relation between Garo Material Culture and Worldview

Pratibha Mandal
Worked at Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, and Asiatic Society, Kolkata, West Bengal

Abstract
Material culture and worldview both have been studied well in extent, but usually not in conjunction with one another. Studies on the material culture do not encompass the worldview of the concerned society. On the other hand, worldview is usually discussed in connection with language and religion. In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the two together with the purpose of finding out the relationship between them from their reflections in oral narratives of a pre-literate ethnic group, viz., the Garos of north-east India. But since the worldview of such an ethnic group is structured on the experiences in all walks of life of that group, and since the material culture of such a group being entirely dependent on the resources available in its habitat largely shapes most of its fundamental socio-cultural aspects, a thorough study of the relationship between the material culture and worldview demands the taking of all those aspects into account. This in the area of oral narratives demands, in turn, a kind of content analysis of those narratives which has the capacity to cover all the broad socio-cultural aspects of human existence. To do this systematically a specific kind of content analysis, apt to be called the Hetta Dimensional Content Analysis (HDCA), has been employed to a Garo tale entitled ‘The Story of the Dove’.

Socio-Cultural Reproductive Health Practices of Gadaba Tribe of Odisha: Some Observations of Koraput District

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 65(1) : (55-62), 2016

Socio-Cultural Reproductive Health Practices of Gadaba Tribe of Odisha: Some Observations of Koraput District
Sili Rout
Central University of Orissa, Koraput, Odisha

Abstract
Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system, and to its functions and processes. This study mainly concentrated on the reproductive health care of women of Gadaba Tribe of Koraput. The main objective of the study was to study the antenatal and post-natal care practice of Gadaba women. To find pregnancy related socio-cultural practices of Gadaba women. To identification misbelieves regarding food and working status of women during pregnancy. Anthropological methods like observation, interview scheduled, and case study were used to for collection of empirical data and secondary data collected from different journals and books to get better insight into the reproductive health of tribal. To collect on birth related practices, in depth investigation were carried out in this tribal group with the help of questionnaire and personal discussion and also through the personal observation.

The Nature of Lepcha Traditional Festival: An Overview

Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, 65(1) : (39-54), 2016

The Nature of Lepcha Traditional Festival: An Overview

Sumitabha Chakraborty

Anthropological Survey of India, Eastern Regional Center, Kolkata, West Bengal

Abstract
Festivals are an important sector of folk culture. Because of the maintenance and fostering of traditional culture and tradition every folk society always make a considerable effort through such festivals, which is the reflection of cultural celebration of a society. Cultural values of the society, social situations can easily be reflected and justified in the festivals which offer a vision of the future. Festivals are prime subject matter of folklorist as well as anthropologists (Stoeltze, 1992). Anthropologist often argues that the celebration of festivals of the traditional communities always preserve cultural heritage, fostering social cohesion, releasing tensions and inculcating pride and loyalty. Festival is more likely a ritual and cultural performance. Nevertheless, an expression of the past, the world-view which these festivals imply can occasionally collide against current social values, which are directly correlated to the issue of people living together in harmony. Traditionalism is clearly based on an acritical and reified view of culture. Therefore, traditional festival of the Lepcha supports social integration throughout their reified view of culture they may have. More to say, this traditional festival contribute toward legitimizing social constructs which tend to strengthen peoples’ identical customs neglecting all the immigrant customs. Here is an attempt to scrutinize that unique feature of Lepcha traditional festivals which speaks the identical customs.