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DNA Polymorphism in Contemporary Indian Population and Ancient Skeletal Remains

Anthropological Survey of India initiated the national project “DNA Polymorphism in Contemporary Indian Population and Ancient Skeletal Remains” in tenth five year plan, It studied the DNA material of Indian populations including endangered tribal populations of Andaman Islands. The Survey begins to develop a resource of cell lines and DNA samples that can be used to study DNA sequence polymorphisms in contemporary Indian populations with the following objectives.

 

  1. To study Genetic diversity – mtDNA,  Y Chromosome markers;
  2. To understand phylogenetic architecture of the Indian populations;
  3. To generate DNA database of Indian tribal populations;
  4. To know the candidate gene association with various diseases;
  5. To identify new candidate gene through genome-wide studies.

 

In the context of the above objectives in last three (10th, 11th & 12th) five year plans, survey have more emphasized:

 

(a) To understand genetic diversity of Indian populations through DNA polymorphism by establishing a catalogue of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) among various ethnic groups in different geographic regions of India based on direct re-sequencing of haploid genomes (mtDNA and Y chromosome). Information about genetic variation is critical for understanding how genes function or malfunction and for understanding how genetic and functional variations are related.

(b) To establish Indian role in the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa. Modern humans could have taken the “southern route of dispersal,” utilising the coastlines to travel from Africa, through Arabia, across the Indian subcontinent and then into South-East Asia and finally into Australia.

(c)  Use high-throughput sequencing technologies for analysis of sequence variation in the Indian population and to make this data available to the scientific community via centralized public databases.

Currently, Anthropological survey of India has studied 75 communities comprising 7807 blood samples from different parts of the country under this project. Communities’  names have given below:

Sl.No

Name of the Community

Sl.No

Name of the Community

1

Jarawa

38

Mullu Kurumba

2

Nicobarese

39

Panian

3

Andh

40

Porja

4

Hill Kolam

41

Savara

5

Kamar

42

Soliga

6

Kathakur

43

Toda

7

Kathodi

44

Erukula

8

Katkari

45

Yanadi

9

Korku

46

Kani

10

Madia

47

Konda Reddy

11

Malpaharia

48

Koya Dora

12

Mathakur

49

Kota

13

Nihal

50

UraliKuruman

14

KhutiaKhond

51

Dongri Bhil

15

Munda

52

GadiaLohar

16

PaudiBhuiya

53

Padar

17

Toto

54

Dhodia

18

Bhoi Khasi

55

Nayaka

19

DirangMonpa

56

Bhil

20

Gallong

57

Karen

21

Lachungpa

58

Bondo

22

Lepcha

59

Asur

23

Paitei

60

Birhor

24

Shertukpen

61

Juang

25

SonowalKachari

62

PahadiKorwa

26

Tai Ahom

63

Mizo (Lushai)

27

Tai Khampti

64

Nishi

28

Wanchoo

65

Rabha

29

Angami Naga

66

Hmar

30

Bhotia (Rung)

67

Mara

31

Allu Kurumba

68

Raji

32

Betta Kuruba

69

Jaunsari (4 Groups)

33

Chenchu

70

Bhotia (Tolcha&Marcha)

34

Irula

71

Damor

35

JenuKuruba

72

Meena

36

Kattunayakan

73

Kolgha

37

Koraga

74

Kotwalia

On the other hand, to fulfill the objectives no.4 & no.5, this survey took an individual project on some of the genetic disorders to know candidate gene associations with various diseases. The details are shown below;

Sl.No

Project

Regional Centers

1

Parkinson Disease

Head Office, Kolkata

2

Type I Diabetes

Head Office, Kolkata

3

Aggression and Aggressive Behavior

Head Office, Kolkata

4

Gallbladder cancer

Head Office, Kolkata

5

Breast Cancer

Head Office, Kolkata

6

Alcoholism

Head Office, Kolkata

7

Spina Bifida

Head Office, Kolkata

8

Cardiac Disease

Head Office, Kolkata

9

Type 2 Diabetes

SRC, Mysore

10

Handigodu Syndrome

SRC, Mysore

11

Obesity

SRC, Mysore

12

Cardiovascular Disease

SRC, Mysore

13

Coronary Heart Disease

NWRC, Dehradun

14

Diabetic Retinopathy

WRC, Udiapur

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